The Resource !UNKNOWN LABEL

!UNKNOWN LABEL

Label
1957-1966
Inclusive dates
1957-1966
Creator
Contributor
Subject
Genre
Language
eng
Summary
This collection includes, but is not limited to, incoming and outgoing correspondence, memorandums, maps, reports, trail transcripts, personnel files, applications, transfer requests, calendars and newspaper clippings. Correspondents include, but are not limited to, parents, school superintendents, school principals, and school boards. Topics discussed include: policies and procedures, desegregation, education laws, student records, demography, and supreme court decisions. Each series is described in more detail within the finding aid
Note
Agency history record describes the history and functions of the Virginia Pupil Placement Board. (Search author as Virginia Pupil Placement Board).
Member of
Action
  • Accessioned
  • Described
Biographical or historical data
  • The creation of Virginia's Pupil Placement Board was approved by an act of the Virginia General Assembly on September 29, 1956. The Pupil Placement Act was one part of a comprehensive package of legislation passed during the 1956 special session to negate and counteract the effects of the opinion expressed by the U.S. Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education (1954). The Brown decision marked the end of legal segregation in public schools by concluding that separate facilities for students of different races are inherently unequal and thus in violation of the fourteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In 1955 the U.S. Supreme Court revisited the Brown decision to provide a timeline for the integration of pubic schools. The court left much room for interpretation by stating that schools should be integrated, "with all deliberate speed."
  • In response to the Brown cases, U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd (D-Virginia) coined the term for what would become Virginia's overarching integration policy when he stated, "If we can organize the Southern States for massive resistance to this order I think that in time the rest of the country will realize that racial integration is not going to be accepted in the South." Virginia's "Massive Resistance" policy ran counter to the Supreme Court's order for public schools to integrate "with all deliberate speed" by using state law to hopelessly hinder integration and thus thwart the intent of the court.
  • In response to the Brown cases, U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd (D-Virginia) coined the term for what would become Virginia's overarching integration policy when he stated, "If we can organize the Southern States for massive resistance to this order I think that in time the rest of the country will realize that racial integration is not going to be accepted in the South." Virginia's "Massive Resistance" policy ran counter to the Supreme Court's order for public schools to integrate "with all deliberate speed" by using state law to hopelessly hinder integration and thus thwart the intent of the court.
  • In 1956, Governor Thomas B. Stanley appointed Hugh V. White, Beverly H. Randolph Jr., and Andrew A. Farley to serve as the three members of the Pupil Placement Board. From the beginning the board was frustrated by legal challenges from federal courts and by local school boards that increasingly tended to ignore the board's decisions as time progressed. All three board members served from the board's creation until they tendered a collective resignation effective in early 1960. Their resignations followed an Act of the General Assembly approved on April 28, 1959 that returned the responsibility of pupil placement to localities. Speaking before the General Assembly On January 28, 1959, Governor James Lindsay Almond, Jr. spoke on behalf of the Pupil Placement Board and defended it against the charge that it served as an impediment to integration. However, Governor Almond concluded that Virginia must, "repeal...laws that have been finally adjudged to be unconstitutional or have proven ineffective." He added that Virginia must, "prepare for the future by removing from our statutes that which those who oppose our way of life have used as a virus to contaminate the whole." He urged the assembly to reconsider laws governing education, including laws governing the transfer of pupils from school to school.
  • Following the resignation of the board's membership, the Journal of the Senate enrolled House Joint Resolution 91 on March 10, 1960, acknowledging the board's mass resignation, "as a result of circumstances which would render their task almost impossible of performance." Governor Almond appointed Earnest J. Oglesby, Edward T. Justis, and Alfred L. Wingo to the board in place of the original members. Even with the loss of most of its power and the effective end of the Massive Resistance movement in 1959, the Pupil Placement Board remained in existence for another seven years until it was finally abolished by an act of the General Assembly in 1966.
Cataloging source
VIC
Form designation
Records of the Virginia Pupil Placement Board
Label
!UNKNOWN LABEL
Link
http://ead.lib.virginia.edu/vivaxtf/view?docId=lva/vi02003.xml;query=26517;brand=default
http://library.link/vocab/branchCode
  • The Library of Virginia
Cumulative index finding aids
Finding aid
Extent
263.7
Immediate source of acquisition
Pupil Placement Board
Organization method
Organized into the following series: I. Correspondence and Subject Files; II. Personnel; III. Minutes; IV. Legal Files; V. Maps; VI. Applications; VII. Printed Materials.
http://library.link/vocab/recordID
000493353
Type of unit
cu.ft. (746 boxes)

Library Locations

    • Library of VirginiaBorrow it
      800 East Broad Street, Richmond, VA, 23219, US
      37.5415632 -77.4360805
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